NSAIDs are widely used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases as well as of tendon diseases associated with pain in sports and labor. However, the effect of NSAID intake, and thus blockade of PGE(2) production, on the tendon tissue adaptation is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the possible effects of NSAID intake on healthy tendon collagen turnover in relation to a strenuous bout of endurance exercise. Fifteen healthy young men were randomly assigned into two experimental groups, with one group receiving indomethacin (oral 2 × 100 mg Confortid daily for 7 days; NSAID; n = 7) and a placebo group (n = 8). Both groups were exposed to a prolonged bout of running (36 km). The collagen synthesis NH₂-terminal propeptide of type I (PINP) and PGE₂ concentrations were measured before and 72 h following the run in the patella tendon by microdialysis. The peritendinous concentrations of PINP increased significantly in the placebo group as a result of the run, as shown previously. PGE₂ levels were significantly decreased 72 h after the run compared with basal levels in the subjects treated with NSAID and unchanged in the placebo group. The NSAID intake abolished the adaptive increase in collagen synthesis in the patella tendon found in the placebo group in response to the prolonged exercise (P < 0.05). The present study demonstrates that intake of NSAID decreased interstitial PGE₂ and abolished the exercise-induced adaptive increase in collagen synthesis in human tendons.