The objectives of the current study were to analyze the effects of orofacial myofunctional therapy (OMT) on the treatment of subjects with associated articular and muscular temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Thirty subjects with associated articular and muscular TMD, according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC/TMD), were randomly divided into groups: 10 were treated with OMT (T group), 10 with an occlusal splint (OS group), and 10 untreated control group with TMD (SC). Ten subjects without TMD represented the asymptomatic group (AC). All subjects had a clinical examination and were interviewed to determine Helkimo's Indexes (Di and Ai), the frequency and severity of signs and symptoms, and orofacial myofunctional evaluation. During the diagnostic phase, there were significant differences between groups T and AC. There were no significant differences between group T and OC and SC groups. During the final phase, groups T and OS presented significant improvement, however, the group T presented better results and differed significantly from group OS regarding the number of subjects classified as Aill; the severity of muscular pain and TMJ pain; the frequency of headache and the muscles and stomatognathic functions. The group T differed significantly from the SC group but no longer differed significantly from the AC group. OMT favored a significant reduction of pain sensitivity to palpation of all muscles studied but not for the TMJs; an increased measure of mandibular range of motion; reduced Helkimo's Di and Ai scores; reduced frequency and severity of signs and symptoms; and increased scores for orofacial myofunctional conditions.