Heart failure is a common pathology sometimes considered as a "new epidemic". Its prevalence is increasing over the years since the cardiovascular management of patients is improving, and the Western population is aging. Prevalence is estimated to 9% in the 80-89 year-old patients, with a mean age of 75 at the onset of heart failure. The proportion of "diastolic heart failure" is about 40 to 55% of the total number of heart failure patients. Hypertension and ischemic cardiomyopathy are the most frequent aetiologies, but diabetes plays an increasing role. Prognosis of heart failure remains poor. Thus, five-year mortality rate is decreasing but remains higher than 50% in recent years. Furthermore, heart failure leads to more than 150 000 hospitalizations in France and the the cost of heart failure represents 1% of the total health expenditures. Thus, heart failure is a major and growing health problem. To reduce morbidity and mortality, we need to optimize therapy (both, pharmacologic and device therapy) and improve preventive measures, such as educational programs and multidisciplinary management in order to treat not only the disease itself but its aetiology, as well.