A comparison of preferences for two GLP-1 products--liraglutide and exenatide--for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

J Med Econ. 2010;13(4):655-61. doi: 10.3111/13696998.2010.529377. Epub 2010 Nov 1.


Objective: To use time trade-off (TTO) to compare patient preferences for profiles of two glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) products for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (liraglutide and exenatide) that vary on four key attributes - efficacy (as measured by hemoglobin A(1C)), incidence of nausea, incidence of hypoglycemia, and dosing frequency (QD vs. BID) - and measure the contribution of those attributes to preferences.

Methods: A total of 382 people with T2DM were recruited to participate in an internet-based survey consisting of a series of health-related questions, a conjoint exercise and a set of time trade-off items. In the conjoint exercise, respondents were presented with eight pairs of hypothetical GLP-1 profiles, and completed a time-tradeoff exercise for each pair.

Results: The product profile representing liraglutide was preferred by 96% of respondents and resulted in significantly higher health utilities (0.038) than the product profile representing exenatide (0.978 vs. 0.94, p < 0.05). Estimated preference scores from the conjoint analysis revealed that efficacy measured by hemoglobin A(1C) is the most important attribute, followed by nausea, hypoglycemia, and dosing schedule.

Limitations: On-line participants may not represent 'typical' type 2 diabetes patients, and brief product profiles represented results from clinical trials, not clinical practice

Conclusion: Based on the four attributes presented, patients prefer liraglutide over exenatide. Preference is based on superior efficacy and less nausea more than less hypoglycemia and once-daily dosing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Exenatide
  • Female
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / administration & dosage
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / adverse effects
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / analogs & derivatives*
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / therapeutic use
  • Glycated Hemoglobin
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemia / chemically induced
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / adverse effects
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Liraglutide
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nausea / chemically induced
  • Patient Preference*
  • Peptides / administration & dosage
  • Peptides / adverse effects
  • Peptides / therapeutic use*
  • Quality of Life
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Venoms / administration & dosage
  • Venoms / adverse effects
  • Venoms / therapeutic use*


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Peptides
  • Venoms
  • Liraglutide
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Exenatide