Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, and survival rates of stage-specific renal cell carcinoma in North America: a trend analysis

Eur Urol. 2011 Jan;59(1):135-41. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2010.10.029. Epub 2010 Oct 28.


Background: The rising incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been largely attributed to the increasing use of imaging procedures.

Objective: Our aim was to examine stage-specific incidence, mortality, and survival trends of RCC in North America.

Design, setting, and participants: We computed age-adjusted incidence, survival, and mortality rates using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database. Between 1988 and 2006, 43,807 patients with histologically confirmed RCC were included.

Measurements: We calculated incidence, mortality, and 5-yr survival rates by year. Reported findings were stratified according to disease stage.

Results and limitations: Age-adjusted incidence rate of RCC rose from 7.6 per 100,000 person-years in 1988 to 11.7 in 2006 (estimated annual percentage change [EAPC]: +2.39%; p<0.001). Stage-specific age-adjusted incidence rates increased for localized stage: 3.8 in 1988 to 8.2 in 2006 (EAPC: +4.29%; p<0.001) and decreased during the same period for distant stage: 2.1 to 1.6 (EAPC: -0.57%; p=0.01). Stage-specific survival rates improved over time for localized stage but remained stable for regional and distant stages. Mortality rates varied significantly over the study period among localized stage, 1.3 in 1988 to 2.4 in 2006 (EAPC: +3.16%; p<0.001), and distant stage, 1.8 in 1988 to 1.6 in 2006 (EAPC: -0.53%; p=0.045). Better detailed staging information represents a main limitation of the study.

Conclusions: The incidence rates of localized RCC increased rapidly, whereas those of distant RCC declined. Mortality rates significantly increased for localized stage and decreased for distant stage. Innovation in diagnosis and management of RCC remains necessary.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Distribution
  • Age Factors
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / epidemiology*
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / mortality
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Kidney Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Kidney Neoplasms / mortality
  • Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • North America / epidemiology
  • Prognosis
  • SEER Program
  • Survival Analysis
  • Survival Rate
  • Time Factors