In an attempt to discover novel adipokines, we performed proteomics analyses using culture medium from differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and first identified GM2AP. The levels of GM2AP mRNA and protein were augmented by adipogenesis in cultured adipocytes and expression in adipose tissue and serum of obese mice or human subjects was found to be significantly higher than in lean counterparts. Exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to GM2AP protein accelerated dissociation of insulin receptor-beta (IRβ) from caveolin-1, and interrupted insulin signal transduction. Abrogation of GM2AP function by specific antibodies augmented glucose uptake. Furthermore, treatment of rat pheochromocytoma PC12 NS1 cells with GM2AP impaired NGF signal transduction. Taken together, these results provide novel insights into the physiological functions of GM2AP in obesity.
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