Oral administration of tepoxalin in the horse: a PK/PD study

Vet J. 2011 Oct;190(1):143-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2010.09.013. Epub 2010 Oct 30.


Tepoxalin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties and has been recently introduced into veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) profile of tepoxalin to assess whether it would be suitable for clinical use in horses. Six female fasting/fed horses were given 10mg/kg tepoxalin orally in a cross-over study. After administration, tepoxalin underwent rapid and extensive hydrolytic conversion to its carboxylic acid metabolite RWJ-20142. In animals that had been fed, the plasma concentrations of tepoxalin were undetectable, whereas in fasting animals they were close to the limit of quantification of the method. No differences between the fasting/fed groups in RWJ-20142 plasma concentrations were shown. Tepoxalin showed a strong and long-lasting ex vivo inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, mainly due to its main metabolite RWJ-20142. Tepoxalin and RWJ-20142 do not seem to possess either COX-2 or 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity in the horse. These features suggest that the drug is a selective COX-1 inhibitor in horses, with no significant anti-inflammatory activity. Thus, its long term use in equine practice could be of concern.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / blood
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacokinetics
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology
  • Area Under Curve
  • Biological Availability
  • Chickens / metabolism
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / veterinary
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Fasting
  • Female
  • Horses / blood
  • Horses / metabolism*
  • Pyrazoles / administration & dosage*
  • Pyrazoles / blood
  • Pyrazoles / pharmacokinetics
  • Pyrazoles / pharmacology
  • Random Allocation


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Pyrazoles
  • tepoxalin