Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2011 Jan;39(Database issue):D653-7.
doi: 10.1093/nar/gkq1058. Epub 2010 Oct 29.

ArachnoServer 2.0, an Updated Online Resource for Spider Toxin Sequences and Structures

Free PMC article

ArachnoServer 2.0, an Updated Online Resource for Spider Toxin Sequences and Structures

Volker Herzig et al. Nucleic Acids Res. .
Free PMC article


ArachnoServer ( is a manually curated database providing information on the sequence, structure and biological activity of protein toxins from spider venoms. These proteins are of interest to a wide range of biologists due to their diverse applications in medicine, neuroscience, pharmacology, drug discovery and agriculture. ArachnoServer currently manages 1078 protein sequences, 759 nucleic acid sequences and 56 protein structures. Key features of ArachnoServer include a molecular target ontology designed specifically for venom toxins, current and historic taxonomic information and a powerful advanced search interface. The following significant improvements have been implemented in version 2.0: (i) the average and monoisotopic molecular masses of both the reduced and oxidized form of each mature toxin are provided; (ii) the advanced search feature now enables searches on the basis of toxin mass, external database accession numbers and publication date in ArachnoServer; (iii) toxins can now be browsed on the basis of their phyletic specificity; (iv) rapid BLAST searches based on the mature toxin sequence can be performed directly from the toxin card; (v) private silos can be requested from research groups engaged in venoms-based research, enabling them to easily manage and securely store data during the process of toxin discovery; and (vi) a detailed user manual is now available.


Figure 1.
Figure 1.
ArachnoServer Toxin Card for τ-theraphotoxin-Pc1c, a TRPV1 agonist isolated from the venom of the Trinidad chevron tarantula Psalmopoeus cambridgei. The top section of the Toxin Card provides a summary of the toxin’s activity, the source species and year of discovery. The dynamically generated image of the toxin’s primary structure displays the mature toxin sequence and, where available, its disulfide-bond framework, pharmacophore residues and posttranslational modifications. A new addition in Version 2.0 is the automated display of the average and monoisotopic masses for both the reduced and oxidized forms of the toxin. Below this image are additional user-expandable sections that provide information about the toxin’s molecular target, phyletic specificity and 3D structure, as well as literature references, toxin synonyms and both current and historic taxonomy of the source species. Clicking the spider photo yields a downloadable high-resolution image.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Schematic overview of the data retrieval and curation process in ArachnoServer.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 64 articles

See all "Cited by" articles


    1. King GF, Gentz MC, Escoubas P, Nicholson GM. A rational nomenclature for naming peptide toxins from spiders and other venomous animals. Toxicon. 2008;52:264–276. - PubMed
    1. Jungo F, Bairoch A. Tox-Prot, the toxin protein annotation program of the Swiss-Prot protein knowledgebase. Toxicon. 2005;45:293–301. - PubMed
    1. He QY, He QZ, Deng XC, Yao L, Meng E, Liu ZH, Liang SP. ATDB: a uni-database platform for animal toxins. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D293–D297. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Kaas Q, Westermann JC, Halai R, Wang CK, Craik DJ. ConoServer, a database for conopeptide sequences and structures. Bioinformatics. 2008;24:445–446. - PubMed
    1. Escoubas P, Sollod BL, King GF. Venom landscapes: mining the complexity of spider venoms via a combined cDNA and mass spectrometric approach. Toxicon. 2006;47:650–663. - PubMed

Publication types