LFA-1 and Mac-1 define characteristically different intralumenal crawling and emigration patterns for monocytes and neutrophils in situ

J Immunol. 2010 Dec 1;185(11):7057-66. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1001638. Epub 2010 Oct 29.


To exit blood vessels, most (∼80%) of the lumenally adhered monocytes and neutrophils crawl toward locations that support transmigration. Using intravital confocal microscopy of anesthetized mouse cremaster muscle, we separately examined the crawling and emigration patterns of monocytes and neutrophils in blood-perfused unstimulated or TNF-α-activated venules. Most of the interacting cells in microvessels are neutrophils; however, in unstimulated venules, a greater percentage of the total monocyte population is adherent compared with neutrophils (58.2 ± 6.1% versus 13.6 ± 0.9%, adhered/total interacting), and they crawl for significantly longer distances (147.3 ± 13.4 versus 61.8 ± 5.4 μm). Intriguingly, after TNF-α activation, monocytes crawled for significantly shorter distances (67.4 ± 9.6 μm), resembling neutrophil crawling. Using function-blocking Abs, we show that these different crawling patterns were due to CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1)- versus CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1)-mediated crawling. Blockade of either Mac-1 or LFA-1 revealed that both LFA-1 and Mac-1 contribute to monocyte crawling; however, the LFA-1-dependent crawling in unstimulated venules becomes Mac-1 dependent upon inflammation, likely due to increased expression of Mac-1. Mac-1 alone was responsible for neutrophil crawling in both unstimulated and TNF-α-activated venules. Consistent with the role of Mac-1 in crawling, Mac-1 block (compared with LFA-1) was also significantly more efficient in blocking TNF-α-induced extravasation of both monocytes and neutrophils in cremaster tissue and the peritoneal cavity. Thus, mechanisms underlying leukocyte crawling are important in regulating the inflammatory responses by regulating the numbers of leukocytes that transmigrate.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Blocking / pharmacology
  • CD18 Antigens / physiology
  • Cell Movement / immunology*
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism
  • Inflammation Mediators / physiology
  • Leukocyte Count
  • Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 / biosynthesis
  • Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 / immunology
  • Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 / physiology*
  • Macrophage-1 Antigen / biosynthesis
  • Macrophage-1 Antigen / immunology
  • Macrophage-1 Antigen / physiology*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence
  • Monocytes / immunology*
  • Monocytes / metabolism
  • Monocytes / ultrastructure
  • Neutrophil Activation / immunology
  • Neutrophils / immunology*
  • Neutrophils / metabolism
  • Neutrophils / ultrastructure
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / administration & dosage
  • Venules / immunology
  • Venules / metabolism
  • Venules / ultrastructure


  • Antibodies, Blocking
  • CD18 Antigens
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1
  • Macrophage-1 Antigen
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha