The accumulation of dust mite allergens on mattresses made of different kinds of materials

Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. Jun-Sep 2010;28(2-3):155-61.


Background: Different mattress materials may affect the accumulation of allergens.

Objective: To compare the amount of group 1 dust mite allergens (Der p1 + Der f1) on mattresses made of different kinds of materials before and after use.

Methods: Sixty new mattresses made of kapok, synthetic fiber, coconut fiber and sponge-like polyurethane, were placed in the house officers' dormitory at Siriraj hospital, Thailand. The dust samples were collected before (0), 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the mattresses were used. Group 1 dust mite allergens were analyzed using two-site monoclonal antibody ELISA.

Results: Der f1 made up 86.7 % of group 1 allergens found in the matress dust. After the 2nd month, only the mean level in sponge-like polyurethane mattress was under 2 microg/g dust (sensitized level). At the 6th month, the mean levels were 13.1 in coconut, 21.7 in kapok and 17.3 microg/g dust in synthetic fiber, all of which were more than 10 microg/g dust (symptomatic level). At the 9th month, the level in sponge-like polyurethane mattress was increased to 11.2 microg/g. At 12th month the level in coconut fiber, sponge-like polyurethane synthetic fiber and kapok mattresses were 20.2, 22.4, 28.9 and 32.2 microg/g dust respectively.

Conclusions: The accumulation rate in kapok and synthetic mattresses was significantly higher than coconut and sponge-like polyurethane mattresses. The mean level of group 1 mite allergens exceeded 10 microg/g dust after the 6th month of use in coconut fiber, kapok and synthetic fiber and at the 9th month in sponge-like polyurethane mattress.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigens, Dermatophagoides / immunology
  • Antigens, Dermatophagoides / metabolism*
  • Arthropod Proteins
  • Asthma / epidemiology*
  • Asthma / immunology
  • Beds
  • Ceiba / immunology
  • Cocos / immunology
  • Cysteine Endopeptidases
  • Dust / analysis
  • Hospitals
  • Humans
  • Manufactured Materials / statistics & numerical data*
  • Polyurethanes
  • Pyroglyphidae / immunology
  • Textiles / statistics & numerical data*
  • Thailand


  • Antigens, Dermatophagoides
  • Arthropod Proteins
  • Dust
  • Polyurethanes
  • Cysteine Endopeptidases
  • Dermatophagoides farinae antigen f 1
  • Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigen p 1