A system of amyloid fibril nomenclature based on the chemical identity of the amyloid fibril forming protein is recommended. This system has been in use for approximately 40 years, but current literature remains confused with clinical and histochemical designations used when the amyloid disease processes were poorly understood. To be designated an amyloid fibril protein, the protein must occur in tissue deposits and exhibit affinity for Congo red and green birefringence when viewed by polarisation microscopy. Furthermore, the protein must have been unambiguously characterised by protein sequence analysis (DNA sequencing in the case of familial diseases). Current nomenclature lists of 27 human and nine animal fibril proteins are provided together with a list of eight inclusion bodies that exhibit some of the properties of amyloid fibrils.