The relationship between postprandial bile acid concentration, GLP-1, PYY and ghrelin

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011 Jan;74(1):67-72. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2010.03886.x.


Background: Gut hormones peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) play an integral role in appetite control and energy homeostasis. Entero-endocrine L-cells can be stimulated by nutrients and or bile acids to co-secrete PYY and GLP-1. The aim of this study was to determine the response of bile acids, PYY, GLP-1 and ghrelin after a test meal.

Design: Twelve subjects with a BMI of 22·8 (0·52) kg/m² [mean (SEM)] received a 400 kcal test meal after which blood samples were taken every 30 min from 0 to 180 min. PYY, GLP-1 and ghrelin were measured by radioimmunoassays. Fractionated bile acids were measured by HPLC-MSMS.

Results: PYY positively correlated with glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) (rs = 0·23, P = 0·03) and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) (rs = 0·26, P = 0·02). GLP-1 positively correlated with GCDCA (rs = 0·22, P = 0·047) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) (rs = 0·3, P = 0·005). Ghrelin negatively correlated with GDCA (rs = -0·45, P≤ 0·0001), TCDCA (rs = -0·23, P = 0·034) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) (rs = -0·44, P≤ 0·0001).

Conclusion: PYY and GLP-1 responses correlated with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) counterparts, whereas ghrelin negatively correlated with deoxycholic acid (DCA) counterparts. Specific bile acids may thus differentially affect entero-endocrine cells.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bile Acids and Salts / blood*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Ghrelin / blood*
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / blood*
  • Glycochenodeoxycholic Acid / blood
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Peptide YY / blood*
  • Postprandial Period*
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Young Adult


  • Bile Acids and Salts
  • Ghrelin
  • Peptide YY
  • Glycochenodeoxycholic Acid
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1