Rationale, methods and baseline demographics of the Bhaktapur Glaucoma Study

Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2011 Mar;39(2):126-34. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-9071.2010.02429.x. Epub 2010 Dec 16.


Background: To describe the methodology and baseline data of a population-based study designed to determine the prevalence of glaucoma and to study the risk factors for glaucoma development in a Nepali population.

Design: Population-based cross-sectional study.

Participants: Subjects 40 years and above residing in Bhaktapur District.

Patients and methods: Power calculations suggest that a sample size of 4758 is required. Thirty clusters were randomly selected from the 2 municipalities and 16 Village Development Committees of Bhaktapur District in Nepal. A door-to-door census was conducted in the selected clusters to identify citizens 40 years of age and older. Demographic details were collected and a structured interview, regarding awareness for cataract and glaucoma was taken. All individuals fulfilling the eligibility criteria were recruited and referred to the Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology in Kathmandu for a detailed clinical examination including glaucoma diagnostic procedures. Peripheral blood samples were taken to facilitate future genetic analysis.

Main outcome measures: Prevalence of glaucoma, risk factors and genetic screening.

Results: A total of 4800 people were selected. The mean age of participants was 55.4 ± 12.3 years (range: 40-99) and 51.8% were female. In total, 64.8% of our cohort was aged less than 59 years and 60.5% were illiterate. Among the various ethnic races, 69.7% belonged to the Newar ethnic group.

Conclusion: This study will determine the prevalence of glaucoma and allow for an increased understanding of the risk factors for glaucoma development in this region.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cornea / pathology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Glaucoma, Angle-Closure / epidemiology*
  • Glaucoma, Angle-Closure / genetics
  • Glaucoma, Open-Angle / epidemiology*
  • Glaucoma, Open-Angle / genetics
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Intraocular Pressure
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nepal / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Refractive Errors / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors