Objectives: To assess risk of lung cancer (LC) in patients with preinvasive bronchial lesions and to identify factors associated with higher risk.
Methods: 124 patients with one or more preinvasive bronchial lesions and normal chest computed tomography (CT) (mean age 66.7 years, 121 males and 3 females), followed-up by white light and autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB) every 4-6 mo and chest CT every 6-12 mo, end points were development of carcinoma in situ (CIS) or LC.
Results: Among 124 patients with 240 preinvasive bronchial lesions, 20 CIS or LC lesions were detected during follow-up in 20 (16%) patients, 7 were detected as new endobronchial lesions, 10 as new peripheral lesions and 3 as local progression from severe dysplasia to CIS. Median time to progression from the same site or development of CIS/LC elsewhere was 24 months (range: 6-54 mo). The Cumulative risk of development of CIS/LC was 7% at one year, 20% at three years and 44% at 5 years. Among detected lung cancers, 80% were stage 0 or stage I and underwent treatment with curative intent. Diagnosis of new SD during follow-up (p=0.0001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (p=0.001) or smoking index >52 pack-year (p=0.042) was associated with higher risk. Even after controlling for other risk factors, COPD was associated with risk for lung cancer. Baseline lesion grade was not predictive of patient outcome (p=0.146).
Conclusion: Patients with preinvasive bronchial lesions, especially those with new SD during follow-up, COPD or smoking >52 pack-year are at high risk of LC, AFB and CT follow-up facilitated early detection and treatment with curative intent.
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