A systematic literature review was conducted to examine whether mother's smoking influences girls' smoking more than boys' smoking. Fifty-seven studies, published between 1989 and 2009, were analyzed using a sex and gender lens. Results indicate that mother's prenatal and postnatal smoking influences girls' smoking more than boys' smoking. Despite evidence that sex and gender are important determinants of smoking among adolescents when examined in relation to mother's smoking, the theoretical understanding of why girls are more likely to smoke if prenatally and postnatally exposed to mother's smoking remains unclear. Implications for future research are discussed.