Determinants of age at menarche in the UK: analyses from the Breakthrough Generations Study

Br J Cancer. 2010 Nov 23;103(11):1760-4. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6605978. Epub 2010 Nov 2.


Background: Early menarche increases breast cancer risk but, aside from weight, information on its determinants is limited.

Methods: Age at menarche data were collected retrospectively by questionnaire from 81,606 women aged 16-98, resident in the UK and participating in the Breakthrough Generations Study.

Results: Menarche occurred earlier in women who had a low birthweight (P(trend)<0.001), were singletons (P<0.001), had prenatal exposure to pre-eclampsia (P<0.001) or maternal smoking (P=0.01), were not breastfed (P(trend)=0.03), were non-white (P<0.001), were heavy (P(trend)<0.001) or tall (P(trend)<0.001) compared with their peers at age 7 and exercised little as a child (P(trend)<0.001). Menarcheal age increased with number of siblings (P<0.001) independently of birth order, and had an inverse association with birth order after adjustment for sibship size (P<0.001). In a multivariate model, birthweight, ethnicity, weight, height, exercise, sibship size and birth order remained significant, and maternal age at birth became significant (positive association, P<0.001).

Conclusion: Age at menarche was influenced by both pre- and post-natal factors, and these factors may affect breast cancer risk through this route.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Birth Weight
  • Body Height
  • Breast Neoplasms / etiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Menarche*
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Social Class