Nasal vaccine innovation

J Drug Target. 2010 Dec;18(10):771-86. doi: 10.3109/1061186X.2010.523790.


The current vaccine market is gaining momentum in the development of alternative administration routes namely intranasal, oral, topical, pulmonary, vaginal, and rectal; the nasal route offers the most promising opportunity for vaccine administration. It can enhance convenience, safety, elicit both local and systemic immune responses; thus potentially provide protection from pathogens at the site of entry. Nasal vaccine innovation comes with both opportunities and challenges. The innovative strategies used by industry and researchers to overcome the hurdles are discussed in this article: these include live-attenuated vaccines, adjuvants, mucoadhesives, particulate delivery systems, virus-like particles, vaccine manufacture, challenges of regulatory authorities, and the nasal vaccine impact on market potential. Critical issues for effective nasal vaccination are the antigen-retention period that enables its interaction with the lymphatic system and choice of an adjuvant that is nontoxic and induces the required immune response. Co-adjuvanting by means of a mucoadhesive technology addresses some of these issues. ChiSys(®), a natural bioadhesive with proven intranasal safety profile, has already demonstrated efficacy for several nasally delivered vaccines including norovirus. With the looming threat of a pandemic, alternatives such as intranasal vaccination will ultimately facilitate greater public compliance and rapid mass global vaccination.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adhesiveness
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage
  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Animals
  • Antigens / immunology
  • Drug Delivery Systems*
  • Drug Design
  • Humans
  • Vaccination / methods*
  • Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Vaccines / immunology


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Antigens
  • Vaccines