Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome (DS) is the most common form of human aneuploid disorder. Increase in the copy number of human chromosome 21 genes leads to several alterations including mental retardation, heart and skeletal dysmorphologies with additional physiological defects. To better understand the genotype and phenotype relationships, several mouse models have been developed, including the transchromosomic Tc1 mouse, which carries an almost complete human chromosome 21, that displays several locomotor and cognitive alterations related to DS. In this report we explore the contribution of the genetic dosage of 47 mouse genes located in the most telomeric part of Hsa21, using a novel model, named Ms4Yah, carrying a deletion of the 2.2Mb Ctsb-Prmt2 genetic interval. We combine this deletion with the Tc1 Hsa21 in a rescue experiment. We could recapitulate most of the Tc1 phenotypes but we found no phenotypes induced by the Ms4Yah and no contribution to the Tc1-induced phenotypes even if we described new alteration in social preference but not in olfaction. Thus we conclude that the genes conserved between mouse and human, found in the most telomeric part of Hsa21, and trisomic in Tc1, are not contributing to the major Tc1 phenotypes, suggesting that the Cstb-Prmt2 region is not playing a major role in locomotor and cognitive deficits found in DS.
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