We hypothesized that bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMDMC) would attenuate the remodeling process in a chronic allergic inflammation model. C57BL/6 mice were assigned to two groups. In OVA, mice were sensitized and repeatedly challenged with ovalbumin. Control mice (C) received saline under the same protocol. C and OVA were further randomized to receive BMDMC (2 × 10⁶) or saline intravenously 24 h before the first challenge. BMDMC therapy reduced eosinophil infiltration, smooth muscle-specific actin expression, subepithelial fibrosis, and myocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia, thus causing a decrease in airway hyperresponsiveness and lung mechanical parameters. BMDMC from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic mice transplanted into GFP-negative mice yielded lower engraftment in OVA. BMDMC increased insulin-like growth factor expression, but reduced interleukin-5, transforming growth factor-β, platelet-derived growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression. In conclusion, in the present chronic allergic inflammation model, BMDMC therapy was an effective pre-treatment protocol that potentiated airway epithelial cell repair and prevented inflammatory and remodeling processes.
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