Purpose: In this phase II study we investigated the safety and efficacy of combination capecitabine and (177)Lu-octreotate for the treatment of disseminated, progressive, unresectable neuroendocrine tumours (NETs).
Methods: Enrolled in the study were 33 patients with biopsy-proven NETs, positive (111)In-octreotide scintigraphy and progressive disease measurable by CT/MRI who were to receive four cycles of 7.8 GBq (177)Lu-octreotate 8-weekly, with 14 days of 1,650 mg/m(2) capecitabine per day.
Results: Of the 33 patients, 25 completed four cycles. Minimal transient myelosuppression at 3-4 weeks caused grade 3 thrombocytopenia in one patient but no neutropenia. Nephrotoxicity was absent. Critical organ radiation dosimetry provided median estimates of the dose per cycle to the kidneys of 2.4 Gy and to the liver of 4.8 Gy, and showed cumulative doses all below toxic thresholds. Objective response rates (ORR) were 24% partial response (PR), 70% stable disease (SD) and 6% progressive disease. Median progression-free survival and median overall survival had not been reached at a median follow-up of 16 months (range 5-33 months). Survival at 1 and 2 years was 91% (95% CI 75-98%) and 88% (95% CI 71-96%), respectively.
Conclusion: The addition of capecitabine radiosensitizing chemotherapy does not increase the minimal toxicity of (177)Lu-octreotate radiopeptide therapy and led to an ORR of 24% PR and 70% minor response or SD in patients with progressive metastatic NETs. Tumour control and stabilization of disease was obtained in 94% of these patients.