Objective: To analyze the differences in anatomical, clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of women and men undergoing PMV and to evaluate the relationship between sex, PMV success, and immediate and long-term clinical outcome.
Background: Rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) is predominantly a disease of middle-aged women. Percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty (PMV) has become the standard of care for suitable patients. However little is known about the relationship between sex, PMV success, and procedural outcome.
Methods and results: We evaluated measures of procedural success and clinical outcome in consecutive patients (839 women and 176 men) who underwent PMV. Despite a lower baseline echocardiographic score (7.47 ± 2.15 vs. 8.02 ± 2.18, P = 0.002), women were less likely to achieve PMV success (69% vs. 83%, adjusted OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.27-0.74, P = 0.002), and had a smaller post-procedural MV area (1.86 ± 0.7 vs. 2.07 ± 0.7 cm(2), P < 0.001). Overall procedural and in-hospital complication rates did not differ significantly between women and men. However, women were significantly more likely to develop severe MR immediately post PMV (adjusted OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.0-5.83, P = 0.05) and to undergo MV surgery (adjusted HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.03-2.3, P = 0.037) after a median follow-up of 3.1 years.
Conclusions: Compared to men, women with rheumatic MS who undergo PMV are less likely to have a successful outcome and more likely to require MV surgery on long-term follow-up despite more favorable baseline MV anatomy.