Evaluation of the cellular immune responses induced by a non-adjuvanted inactivated whole virus A/H5N1/VN/1203 pandemic influenza vaccine in humans

Vaccine. 2010 Dec 16;29(2):166-73. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.10.065. Epub 2010 Nov 4.


In the present study the homologous and heterologous type and subtype specific cellular immune response induced by a wild type inactivated whole virus H5N1 Influenza (A/Vietnam/1203/2004) vaccine was evaluated. Two immunizations with the Vero cell derived H5N1 influenza vaccine on Day 0 and Day 21 induced significant H5N1 vaccine specific and H5 haemagglutinin specific clade and cross-clade reactive CD4(+) T cell responses, which were maintained at significant levels for at least 6 months. The H5N1 vaccine specific response cross-reacted with the H1N1, but not with H3N2 or B seasonal Influenza strains. The vaccine significantly increased the number of H5N1 specific and H5 haemagglutinin specific memory B cells, 6 months after the primary immunization, however no H1N1 specific cross-reactivity was observed. Importantly, the inactivated whole virus H5N1 vaccine was just as effective in inducing CD4(+) T cell and memory B cell response in the elderly (60 years or over) as in the adult population (18-59 years).

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Animals
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • Cross Reactions
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Cellular*
  • Immunization, Secondary / methods
  • Immunologic Memory
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype / immunology
  • Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype / immunology
  • Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype / immunology*
  • Influenza B virus / immunology
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control*
  • Middle Aged
  • Pandemics / prevention & control*
  • Vaccination / methods
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / immunology
  • Vero Cells
  • Young Adult


  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Inactivated