Lymphoid tissue inducer cells are members of an emerging family of innate lymphoid cells (ILC). Although these cells were originally reported to produce cytokines such as interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-22, we demonstrate here that human CD127(+)RORC(+) and CD56(+)CD127(+) LTi-like ILC also express IL-2, IL-5, and IL-13 after activation with physiologic stimuli such as common γ-chain cytokines, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 ligands, or IL-23. Whereas TLR2 signaling induced IL-5, IL-13, and IL-22 expression in a nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)-dependent manner, IL-23 costimulation induced only IL-22 production. CD127(+) LTi-like ILC displayed clonal heterogeneity for IL-13 and IL-5 production, suggesting in vivo polarization. Finally, we identified a role for autocrine IL-2 signaling in mediating the effects of TLR2 stimulation on CD56(+)CD127(+) and CD127(+) LTi-like ILC. These results indicate that human LTi-like ILC can directly sense bacterial components and unravel a previously unrecognized functional heterogeneity among this important population of innate lymphoid cells.
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