Objective: To estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women in Karachi, Pakistan; correlate maternal and cord blood vitamin D deficiency; and assess possible predictors of vitamin D deficiency.
Methods: This observational, analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted with 50 consecutive women in labor presenting with a singleton term pregnancy at a large tertiary center in Karachi. Data were recorded on a special form, maternal blood was taken before delivery and cord blood was taken at delivery. All blood samples were analyzed for 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels. Comparisons were made using the Χ(2) test.
Results: The mean vitamin D levels were 24 ng/mL for the participants and 20 ng/mL for the newborns. Vitamin D sufficiency was noted in 11 (22%), insufficiency in 16 (32%), and deficiency in 23 (46%) of the 50 participants whereas sufficiency and deficiency, respectively, were noted in 6 (12%) and 44 (88%) of the newborns. There was a positive correlation between the vitamin D levels in maternal and cord blood (r=0.03; P<0.003). Maternal vitamin D levels were significantly affected by sunlight exposure (P<0.007) and quality of diet P<0.01).
Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is high among pregnant urban Pakistani women and their newborns. This public health problem needs urgent attention.
Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.