Chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1), also known as ChemR23, and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-like 2 (CCRL2) are 7-transmembrane receptors that were cloned in the late 1990s based on their homology to known G-protein-coupled receptors. They were previously orphan receptors without any known biological roles; however, recent studies identified ligands for these receptors and their functions have begun to be unveiled. The plasma protein-derived chemoattractant chemerin is a ligand for CMKLR1 and activation of CMKLR1 with chemerin induces the migration of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro, suggesting a proinflammatory role. However, in vivo studies using CMKLR-deficient mice suggest an anti-inflammatory role for this receptor, possibly due to the recruitment of tolerogenic plasmacytoid DCs. Chemerin/CMKLR1 interaction also promotes adipogenesis and angiogenesis. The anti-inflammatory lipid mediator, resolving E1, is another CMKLR1 ligand and it inhibits leukocyte infiltration and proinflammatory gene expression. These divergent results suggest that CMKLR1 is a multifunctional receptor. The chemokine CCL5 and CCL19 are reported to bind to CCRL2. Like Duffy antigen for chemokine receptor (DARC), D6 and CCX-CKR, CCRL2 does not signal, but it constitutively recycles, potentially reducing local concentration of CCL5 and CCL19 and subsequent immune responses. Surprisingly, chemerin, a ligand for CMKLR1, is a ligand for CCRL2. CCRL2 binds chemerin and increases local chemerin concentration to efficiently present it to CMKLR1 on nearby cells, providing a link between CCRL2 and CMKLR1. Although these findings suggest an anti-inflammatory role, a recent study using CCRL2-deficient mice indicates a proinflammatory role; thus, CCRL2 may also be multifunctional. Further studies using CMKLR1- or CCRL2-deficient mice are needed to further define the role of these receptors in immune responses and other cellular processes.
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