Importance of the field: The ubiquitously expressed 14-3-3ζ protein is involved in numerous important cellular pathways involved in cancer. Recent research suggests 14-3-3ζ may play a central role regulating multiple pathways responsible for cancer initiation and progression. This review will provide an overview of 14-3-3 proteins and address the role of 14-3-3ζ overexpression in cancer.
Areas covered in this review: The review covers the basic role of 14-3-3 in regulation of multiple pathways with a focus on 14-3-3ζ as a clinically relevant biomarker for cancer recurrence.
What the reader will gain: 14-3-3ζ overexpression has been found in multiple cancers; however, the clinical implications were unclear. Recently, 14-3-3ζ has been identified as a biomarker for poor prognosis and chemoresistance in multiple tumor types, indicating a potential clinical application for using 14-3-3ζ in selecting treatment options and predicting cancer patients' outcome.
Take home message: 14-3-3ζ is a potential prognostic marker of cancer recurrence and predictive marker for therapeutic resistance. The overexpression of 14-3-3ζ in multiple cancers suggests that it may be a common target to intervene tumor progression; therefore, more efforts are needed for the development of 14-3-3 inhibitors.