Nicotine dependence and quitting behaviors among menthol and non-menthol smokers with similar consumptive patterns

Addiction. 2010 Dec;105 Suppl 1:55-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03190.x.


Aims: This study examines the associations between usual cigarette brand (i.e. menthol, non-menthol) and markers for nicotine dependence and quitting behaviors.

Design: The 2003 and 2006/07 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Surveys were pooled to conduct secondary data analysis.

Setting: National data were collected using in-person and telephone computer-assisted interviews by the United States Census Bureau among civilian, non-institutionalized people aged 15 years and older.

Participants: Data were analyzed among daily current smokers aged 18+ (n = 46,273).

Measurements: The associations between usual cigarette brand and time to first cigarette within 5 and 30 minutes after waking, quit attempts in the past 12 months and length of smoking abstinence in the past 12 months were examined. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were stratified by smoking intensity: ≤5, 6-10, 11-19 and 20+ cigarettes per day.

Findings: Menthol smokers reported a mean of 13.05 compared with 15.01 cigarettes per day among non-menthol smokers (P < 0.001). Multivariate results showed that among smokers consuming 6-10 cigarettes per day, menthol smokers were significantly more likely than non-menthol smokers to consume their first cigarette within 5 minutes after waking (odds ratio = 1.22, 95% confidence interval = 1.05,1.43). The multivariate models did not show significant associations between usual cigarette brand and quit attempts in past 12 months or duration of smoking abstinence >2 weeks in the past 12 months.

Conclusions: Findings from this national survey of daily smokers demonstrate that menthol smokers in the United States who report consuming 6-10 cigarettes per day show greater signs of nicotine dependence than comparable non-menthol smokers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Attitude to Health
  • Epidemiologic Methods
  • Ethnicity / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Menthol*
  • Middle Aged
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking Cessation / statistics & numerical data*
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / epidemiology*
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult


  • Menthol