Phospho.ELM: a database of phosphorylation sites--update 2011

Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan;39(Database issue):D261-7. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkq1104. Epub 2010 Nov 9.


The Phospho.ELM resource ( is a relational database designed to store in vivo and in vitro phosphorylation data extracted from the scientific literature and phosphoproteomic analyses. The resource has been actively developed for more than 7 years and currently comprises 42,574 serine, threonine and tyrosine non-redundant phosphorylation sites. Several new features have been implemented, such as structural disorder/order and accessibility information and a conservation score. Additionally, the conservation of the phosphosites can now be visualized directly on the multiple sequence alignment used for the score calculation. Finally, special emphasis has been put on linking to external resources such as interaction networks and other databases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Conserved Sequence
  • Databases, Protein*
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Phosphoproteins / chemistry*
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Conformation
  • Sequence Analysis, Protein
  • Serine / metabolism
  • Threonine / metabolism
  • Tyrosine / metabolism


  • Phosphoproteins
  • Threonine
  • Tyrosine
  • Serine