Vitamin D deficiency is a prominent feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD) even in its early stages. While vitamin D deficiency leads to mineral imbalance and bone problems in CDK patients, it also accelerates the progression of kidney disease. Ever since the observation that vitamin D analogs reduce proteinuria in CKD patients, it has been postulated that podocytes are major target of the reno-protective action of vitamin D. Recent large randomized clinical trials have confirmed the potent anti-proteinuric activity of vitamin D therapy. Studies from various animal models of kidney disease have demonstrated that vitamin D prevents podocyte injury and cell loss, promotes the expression of slit diaphragm proteins and maintains the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier. Emerging experimental data suggest that vitamin D may protect podocytes by targeting multiple pathways, including the renin-angiotensin system, Wnt/β-catenin pathway and pro-apoptotic pathway.