Muscle power, the product of force × velocity, is a critical determinant of function in older adults. Resistance training (RT) at high speed has been shown to improve peak muscle power in this population; however, different functional tasks may benefit from the improvement of power at values other than "peak" values, for example, tasks that require a greater velocity component or a greater force component. This study compared the effect of high-speed RT on muscle performance (peak power [PP] and its components [PP force and PP velocity] and overall peak velocity [VEL]) across a broad range of external resistances. Thirty-eight older men and women were randomized to high-speed power training at 40% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) (n = 13 [74.1 ± 6.4 years]); traditional RT at 80% 1RM (n = 13 [70.1 ± 7.0 years]); or control (n = 12 [72.8 ± 4.1 years]). Measures of muscle performance were obtained at baseline and after the 12-week training intervention. Muscle power and 1RM strength improved similarly with both high-speed and traditional slow-speed RT. However, speed-related muscle performance characteristics, PP velocity and overall VEL, were most positively impacted by high-speed power training, especially at lower external resistances. Because gains in speed-related measures with high-speed training compared to traditional RT do not come at the expense of other muscle performance outcomes, we recommend using an RT protocol in older adults that emphasizes high-speed movements at low external resistances.