Myelination and Support of Axonal Integrity by Glia

Nature. 2010 Nov 11;468(7321):244-52. doi: 10.1038/nature09614.

Abstract

The myelination of axons by glial cells was the last major step in the evolution of cells in the vertebrate nervous system, and white-matter tracts are key to the architecture of the mammalian brain. Cell biology and mouse genetics have provided insight into axon-glia signalling and the molecular architecture of the myelin sheath. Glial cells that myelinate axons were found to have a dual role by also supporting the long-term integrity of those axons. This function may be independent of myelin itself. Myelin abnormalities cause a number of neurological diseases, and may also contribute to complex neuropsychiatric disorders.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Axons / physiology*
  • Cell Communication
  • Cognition / physiology
  • Demyelinating Diseases / pathology
  • Demyelinating Diseases / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Inflammation / physiopathology
  • Myelin Sheath / metabolism*
  • Neuroglia / physiology*