Effects of an environmentally realistic pesticide mixture on Daphnia magna exposed for two generations

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2011 Aug;61(2):272-9. doi: 10.1007/s00244-010-9617-z. Epub 2010 Nov 11.


Daphnia magna were exposed under semistatic conditions (i.e., conditions taking natural degradation into account) to a pesticide mixture consisting of a pyrethroid insecticide (cyfluthrin) and a pre-emergent herbicide (diuron) as well as pesticides individually using a full life cycle exposure (21 days). Subsequently, offspring from the second reproductive brood were used to continue exposure for a second generation. Survival, time to first brood, total number of offspring produced, number of broods produced, growth rate, and population growth rate were recorded for each generation and concentration. Significant differences existed between F0 and F1 D. magna for survival, in which F1 were less sensitive to pesticide mixtures than F0. In addition, F1 D. magna were significantly smaller than F0, which resulted in longer time to first brood. There were no differences in any end point examined between D. magna exposed to the pesticide mixture and diuron alone, although differences existed in survival, total number of offspring, total number of broods, and population growth rate when F0 D. magna were exposed to cyfluthrin alone. This study illustrates the utility of a two-generation study design that may more fully reflect, and more accurately predict, population level effects of pesticide exposures to short-lived aquatic organisms.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Daphnia / drug effects*
  • Daphnia / growth & development
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods
  • Herbicides / toxicity*
  • Insecticides / toxicity*
  • Nitriles / toxicity*
  • Pyrethrins / toxicity*
  • Reproduction / drug effects
  • Toxicity Tests
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / toxicity*


  • Herbicides
  • Insecticides
  • Nitriles
  • Pyrethrins
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • cyfluthrin