The oligomeric state of Superfamily I DNA helicases is the subject of considerable and ongoing debate. While models based on crystal structures imply that a single helicase core domain is sufficient for DNA unwinding activity, biochemical data from several related enzymes suggest that a higher order oligomeric species is required. In this work we characterize the helicase activity of the AddAB helicase-nuclease, which is involved in the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks in Bacillus subtilis. We show that the enzyme is functional as a heterodimer of the AddA and AddB subunits, that it is a rapid and processive DNA helicase, and that it catalyses DNA unwinding using one single-stranded DNA motor of 3' → 5' polarity located in the AddA subunit. The AddB subunit contains a second putative ATP-binding pocket, but this does not contribute to the observed helicase activity and may instead be involved in the recognition of recombination hotspot sequences.