The resolution of acute inflammation is a process that allows for inflamed tissues to return to homeostasis. Resolution was held to be a passive process, a concept now overturned with new evidence demonstrating that resolution is actively orchestrated by distinct cellular events and endogenous chemical mediators. Among these, lipid mediators, such as the lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and newly identified maresins, have emerged as a novel genus of potent and stereoselective players that counter-regulate excessive acute inflammation and stimulate molecular and cellular events that define resolution. Given that uncontrolled, chronic inflammation is associated with many cardiovascular pathologies, an appreciation of the endogenous pathways and mediators that control timely resolution can open new terrain for therapeutic approaches targeted at stimulating resolution of local inflammation, as well as correcting the impact of chronic inflammation in cardiovascular disorders. Here, we overview and update the biosynthesis and actions of proresolving lipid mediators, highlighting their diverse protective roles relevant to vascular systems and their relation to aspirin and statin therapies.