This article describes some of the newer techniques that are being used in the clinical assessment of patients following mild to moderate TBI, addresses their use in the acute setting, and explores their potential role in long-term follow-up. Also addressed are the challenges faced before some of these newer techniques can be incorporated into routine clinical management. Large studies are needed with a special emphasis on the effects of repeated head trauma in the young athlete. This is especially relevant where conventional imaging does not demonstrate a macroscopic abnormality. The emphasis has to shift from identifying structural abnormalities on imaging studies to understanding the functional changes in the brain that may explain the long-term neuropsychological effects of concussion and mTBI.
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