Phytochemical compounds and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are emerging as a new generation of anticancer agents with limited toxicity in cancer patients. We investigated the impact of luteolin, a dietary flavonoid, on survival, migration, invasion of cancer cells in vitro, and tumor growth in vivo. Luteolin (25-200μM) decreased the viability of human cancer cell lines originating from the lung (LNM35), colon (HT29), liver (HepG2) and breast (MCF7/6 and MDA-MB231-1833). Luteolin effectively increased the sub-G1 (apoptotic) fraction of cells through caspase-3 and -7 dependent pathways. We provide evidence that luteolin at sub-lethal/non-toxic concentrations inhibited the invasive potential of LNM35, MCF-7/6 and MDA-MB231-1833 cancer cells using Matrigel as well as the chick heart and Oris invasion assays. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time that luteolin is a potent HDAC inhibitor that potentiates the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in LNM35 cells and decreases the growth of LNM35 tumor xenografts in athymic mice after intraperitoneal injection (20mg/kg/day for 18days) Thus, luteolin, in combination with standard anticancer drugs such as cisplatin, may be a promising HDAC inhibitor for the treatment of lung cancer.
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