Since 1950 the peacetime practice of civilian and military surgery has shifted from general surgery to increasing specialization and subspecialization. The surgical management of war wounds continues to require a solid foundation in general surgery training and experience, plus additional specific training in wartime surgery. Even the trauma specialist will face significant differences and difficulties treating war wounds in field hospitals. Neither military nor civilian surgical programs provide this training. This two-part essay identified major characteristics of War Surgery and explores the essential training and education required to prepare civilian and military surgeons for the practice of war surgery.