Chemokines are a family of small and secreted proteins that play pleiotropic roles in inflammation-related pathological diseases, including cancer. Among the identified 50 human chemokines, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is of particular importance in cancer development since it serves as one of the key mediators of interactions between tumor and host cells. CCL2 is produced by cancer cells and multiple different host cells within the tumor microenvironment. CCL2 mediates tumorigenesis in many different cancer types. For example, CCL2 has been reported to promote prostate cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and survival, via binding to its functional receptor CCR2. Furthermore, CCL2 induces the recruitment of macrophages and induces angiogenesis and matrix remodeling. Targeting CCL2 has been demonstrated as an effective therapeutic approach in preclinical prostate cancer models, and currently, neutralizing monoclonal antibody against CCL2 has entered into clinical trials in prostate cancer. In this chapter, targeting CCL2 in prostate cancer will be used as an example to show translation of laboratory findings from cancer molecular biology to the clinic.
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