Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of ¹⁸F-fluoride PET/computed tomography (CT) to detect bone metastases (BMs) in a breast and prostate cancer population, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or thin-slice CT as a gold standard.
Methods: We have prospectively included 34 patients with breast (N=24) or prostate cancer (N=10) at high risk of BMs. Whole-body PET/CT (low-dose CT) and bone scintigraphy (BS) with single photon emission CT were obtained for all 34 patients and the results compared with a radiological gold standard.
Results: Out of the 386 foci detected by PET/CT, 219 (56.7%) could be verified by CT or MRI. Eighty-six additional foci were detected by BS (n=46) or seen only by CT (n=9), MRI (n=23), or both CT and MRI (n=8). The total number of verified lesions was therefore 274 (58.1%), including 119 (43.4%) benign and 155 (56.6%) BM. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of ¹⁸F-fluoride PET/CT were 76, 84.2, and 80%, respectively. For BS, they were 44.8, 79.2, and 60%, respectively. Sensitivity significantly decreased for the lytic lesions. The accuracy of PET/CT was significantly superior to BS for pelvic and lumbar lesions. PET/CT provided a correct diagnosis (M+/M0) in 32 of 33 patients (one false positive) compared with 28 of 33 with BS (four false positive, one false positive).
Conclusion: ¹⁸F-fluoride PET/CT is significantly more accurate than BS for detecting BMs from breast and prostate cancers.