Lysophospholipids are cell membrane-derived lipids that include both glycerophospholipids such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingoid lipids such as sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). These and related molecules can function in vertebrates as extracellular signals by binding and activating G protein-coupled receptors. There are currently five LPA receptors, along with a proposed sixth (LPA₁-LPA₆), and five S1P receptors (S1P₁-S1P₅). A remarkably diverse biology and pathophysiology has emerged since the last review, driven by cloned receptors and targeted gene deletion ("knockout") studies in mice, which implicate receptor-mediated lysophospholipid signaling in most organ systems and multiple disease processes. The entry of various lysophospholipid receptor modulatory compounds into humans through clinical trials is ongoing and may lead to new medicines that are based on this signaling system. This review incorporates IUPHAR Nomenclature Committee guidelines in updating the nomenclature for lysophospholipid receptors ( http://www.iuphar-db.org/DATABASE/FamilyMenuForward?familyId=36).