4-Methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside-6-sulphate was synthesized and used for the determination of galactose-6-sulphate sulphatase activity. Fibroblasts and leucocytes from 12 different Morquio A patients, showed 0.0-2.7% of mean normal galactose-6-sulphate sulphatase activity. Heterozygotes showed intermediate activities. The enzymatic liberation of the fluorochrome from 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside-6-sulphate requires the sequential action of galactose-6-sulphate sulphatase and beta-galactosidase. Normal beta-galactosidase activity caused nearly complete hydrolysis of non-fluorescing 4-methylumbelliferyl-galactoside, formed during incubation. In cell extracts with a beta-galactosidase deficiency however, a second incubation in the presence of excess beta-galactosidase is needed to avoid underestimation of galactose-6-sulphate sulphatase activity.