The purpose of this study was to evaluate the importance of biological markers to predict pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) in patients with locally advanced triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs). Forty-one patients (18.6%) among 220 breast cancer patients were identified as TNBCs from March 2006 to 2009 were included in this prospective study. The pre-NCT treatment expression levels of Ki-67 proliferation index, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), CK5/6, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cyclin D1, and nm23-H1 were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). A total of 180 cycles were administered with the median number of four cycles per patient (range, 4-6). The pCR rate was 34.1% (95% CI, 19.6-48.6%). In univariate analysis, early T stage, clinical response after 2 cycles, negative basal-like, negative EGFR, high Ki-67 proliferation index, and positive nm23-H1 were found to be significantly predictive of a pCR (P = 0.010, 0.040, 0.007, 0.001, 0.019, and 0.010, respectively). Basal-like status and nm23-H1 status were significant for pCR on multivariate analysis (P = 0.004 and 0.031, respectively). Basal-like status and nm23-H1 are independent predictive factors of pCR to neoadjuvant docetaxel plus epirubicin combination chemotherapy in patients with TNBCs.