The growth of three strains of Listeria monocytogenes at refrigeration temperatures (-0.5 to 9.3 degrees C) in chicken broth and/or UHT milk was determined using a rocking temperature gradient incubator. Minimum growth temperatures ranged from -0.1 to -0.4 degree C for the three strains. Lag times of 1-3 d and 3 to greater than 34 d were observed with incubation at 5 and 0 degrees C respectively. Corresponding generation times ranged from 13-24 h at 5 degrees C and 62-131 h at 0 degree C. The type of culture medium had an influence on both the rate and extent of growth. Incubation of cultures at 4 degrees C before inoculation caused a marked reduction in the lag time when compared with cultures which had been previously incubated at 30 degrees C.