Oncolytic adenoviruses show promise as a cancer treatment. However, they generate acute inflammatory responses with production of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We investigated whether inhibition of TNF-α augments efficacy of the E1A CR2-deleted adenovirus dl922-947 in ovarian cancer. dl922-947 induced transcription of TNF-α and its downstream signaling targets interleukin-6 and -8 (IL-6 and IL-8) in ovarian cancer cells. In vitro, RNAi-mediated knockdown of TNF-α reduced production of multiple inflammatory cytokines after infection and increased ovarian cancer cell sensitivity to virus cytotoxicity, as did treatment with the anti-TNF-α antibody infliximab. In vivo, stable knockdown of TNF-α in IGROV-1 xenografts increased the anticancer activity of dl922-947. In addition, inhibition of TNF-α using monoclonal antibodies also improved dl922-947 efficacy. This increased efficacy resulted from suppression of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis-1 and -2 (cIAP1 and cIAP2) transcription in malignant cells and a consequent increase in caspase-mediated apoptosis. These findings suggest that TNF-α acts as a survival factor in adenovirus-infected cells. Combining TNF-α inhibition with oncolytic adenoviruses could improve antitumor activity in clinical trials.