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, 19 (5), 712-8

The Effect of Graft Fixation Sequence on Force Distribution in Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

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The Effect of Graft Fixation Sequence on Force Distribution in Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Chih-Hui Chen et al. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc.

Abstract

Purpose: This paper investigated the effect of graft fixation sequence on knee joint biomechanics after a double-bundle ACL reconstruction.

Method: Two independently published biomechanical studies that investigated the biomechanics of double-bundle ACL reconstructions using similar robotic testing systems were compared. In each study, ten human cadaveric knees were tested under three different conditions: intact, ACL deficient, and ACL reconstructed using a double-bundle technique with the anteromedial (AM) graft fixed at 60° of flexion and the posterolateral (PL) graft fixed at full extension. In one study (Study A), the AM graft was fixed first; while in another study (Study B), the PL graft was fixed first. Knee kinematics, in situ forces of the ACL and the ACL grafts were measured under two loading conditions: an anterior tibial load of 134 N and a combined tibial torques (10 N·m valgus and 5 N·m internal tibial torques) in both studies.

Result: When AM graft was fixed first, the in situ force of the AM graft was lower than the native AM bundle at all flexion angles. The in situ force in the PL graft, however, was higher than the native PL bundle at all flexion angles. When the PL graft was fixed first, the in situ force of the AM graft was higher than the native AM bundle, while the in situ forces of the PL graft were lower than the native PL bundle at all flexion angles. Both studies demonstrated that the double-bundle ACL reconstructions can closely restore the normal knee joint kinematics.

Conclusion: Even though the grafts were fixed using similar initial tensions and at same flexion angles, the sequence of fixing the two grafts in a double-bundle ACL reconstruction could alter the in situ forces in the grafts and affect the knee kinematics. These data imply that in clinical application of a double-bundle ACL reconstruction, the sequence of graft fixation should be an important surgical parameter.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Kinematic response to 134 N anterior tibial load; a Study A, b Study B. Represent statistical significance (P < .05) in comparison with intact bundle. Error bars represent standard deviation [5], DB Recon, double-bundle reconstruction
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
The differences in the in situ forces between the grafts and native bundles. a AM bundle, b PL bundle. AMB Anteromedial bundle, PLB Posterolateral bundle
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Internal tibial rotation in response to combined rotatory loads; a Study A, b Study B. Error bars represent standard deviation [5], DB Recon, double-bundle reconstruction
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
In situ force under combined rotatory loads; a Study A, b Study B. Represent statistical significance (P < .05) in comparison with intact bundle. Error bars represent standard deviation [5], AMB Anteromedial bundle, PLB Posterolateral bundle
Fig. 5
Fig. 5
a AM fixed at 60°; b Tighten the AM graft caused posterior tibial translation; c Install PL graft at full extension; d Tighten PL graft causing posterior tibial translation, thus relaxing the AM graft

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