Pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide appropriate systems for developmental studies and prospective donor cell sources for regenerative medicine. Identification of surface markers specific to hESCs is a prerequisite for studying hESC biology and can be used to generate clinical-level donor cell preparations that are free from tumorigenic undifferentiated hESCs. We previously reported the generation of monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize hESC surface antigens using a decoy immunization strategy. In this study, we show that monoclonal antibody 57-C11 recognizes a phosphorylated form of adenovirus early region 1B-associated protein 5 (E1B-AP5). E1B-AP5 is a nuclear RNA-binding protein, but we report that 57-C11-reactive E1B-AP5 is expressed on the surface of undifferentiated hESCs. In undifferentiated hESCs, 57-C11-reactive E1B-AP5 is localized to SSEA3-, SSEA4-, TRA-1-60-, TRA-1-81-, OCT4-, SOX2-, and NANOG-positive hESCs. In mixtures of undifferentiated hESCs and hESC-derived neurons, 57-C11 exclusively recognizes undifferentiated hESCs but not hESC-derived neuronal cells. Further, the expression of 57-C11-reactive E1B-AP5 decreases upon differentiation. Our results demonstrate that 57-C11-reactive E1B-AP5 is a novel surface molecule that is involved in the undifferentiated state of hESCs. As far as we know, this is the first report demonstrating that heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding protein is expressed on the surface of undifferentiated hESCs.