The incorporation of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate into a glass ionomer cement

Dent Mater. 2011 Mar;27(3):235-43. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2010 Nov 18.


Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure the effect of incorporating CPP-ACP into an autocure GIC on physical and mechanical properties, ion release and enamel demineralization inhibition.

Methods: Physical and mechanical properties were evaluated using tests specified by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Concentrations of fluoride, calcium and inorganic phosphate in deionized water (pH 6.9) and lactic acid (pH 4.8) were measured up to five months. Cavities on human extracted molars were prepared, restored with GIC (control), CPP-ACP modified GIC or resin composite, then stored in 50mM lactic acid solution at pH 4.8 for 4 days. Sections of demineralized enamel were examined using polarized light microscopy followed by lesion area measurement.

Results: The incorporation of up to 5% CPP-ACP into Fuji VII decreased the cements' strength and prolonged setting time. However, values remained within ISO limits. The incorporation of 3 or 5% CPP-ACP significantly decreased fluoride release, while higher calcium and inorganic phosphate release occurred. The demineralized enamel area adjacent to GIC with 3 or 5% CPP-ACP was significantly smaller compared to GIC control.

Significance: The incorporation of 3% CPP-ACP into GIC has the potential to improve its anticariogenic ability without adversely affecting its mechanical properties.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Calcium / analysis
  • Cariostatic Agents / chemistry*
  • Caseins / chemistry*
  • Compressive Strength
  • Dental Restoration, Permanent / methods*
  • Dental Stress Analysis
  • Fluorides / analysis
  • Glass Ionomer Cements / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Phosphates / analysis
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Tensile Strength
  • Tooth Demineralization / prevention & control*
  • Viscosity


  • Cariostatic Agents
  • Caseins
  • Fuji VII
  • Glass Ionomer Cements
  • Phosphates
  • casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplex
  • Fluorides
  • Calcium