Graphic-output temperature data loggers for monitoring vaccine refrigeration: implications for pertussis

Am J Public Health. 2011 Jan;101(1):46-7. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2009.179853. Epub 2010 Nov 18.


We conducted the first US study using graphic-output temperature data loggers in quantifying cold chain failure. Fifty-four vaccine refrigerators of a county outpatient health system were studied. Forty-eight percent maintained temperatures of 2°C to 8°C and 24% had protracted periods of temperatures less than 0°C. The correlation between the percentage of refrigerators with freezing temperatures and the pertussis rate for each health region was r = 0.76. The findings suggest that improper vaccine storage may have contributed to recent increases in pertussis rates.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Automation*
  • Child
  • Community Health Centers
  • Equipment Failure Analysis / instrumentation*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Pertussis Vaccine*
  • Quality Control
  • Refrigeration / instrumentation*
  • Texas / epidemiology
  • Vaccines, Acellular
  • Whooping Cough / epidemiology
  • Whooping Cough / prevention & control*


  • Pertussis Vaccine
  • Vaccines, Acellular