The objective of the present study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with the presence of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 consecutive T1D patients without coronary artery disease, with at least 5 years of diabetes and absence of end-stage renal disease. Mean age was 38 ± 10 years and 57% were males. CAC score was measured by multidetector computed tomography (Siemens Sensation 64 Cardiac). The insulin resistance index was measured using the estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR). The eGDR was lower among CAC-positive patients than among CAC-negative patients, suggesting an increased insulin resistance. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age (at 10-year intervals), eGDR, diabetic nephropathy and gender, CAC was associated with age [OR = 2.73 (95%CI = 1.53-4.86), P = 0.001] and with eGDR [OR = 0.08 (95%CI = 0.02-0.21), P = 0.004]. In T1D subjects, insulin resistance is one of the most important risk factors for subclinical atherosclerosis.