A Dutch ICF version of the Activity Inventory: results from focus groups with visually impaired persons and experts

Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010 Dec;17(6):366-77. doi: 10.3109/09286586.2010.528133.


Purpose: To develop a valid and reliable instrument to systematically investigate visual rehabilitation needs of visually impaired older adults, which is compatible with the "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health" (ICF) structure: a new Dutch ICF version of the Activity Inventory (D-AI).

Methods: The original AI was translated, adjusted and expanded. After studying literature and investigating patient records, focus group discussions were conducted until the input was just confirmatory. Six (n = 41) and seven (n = 50) discussions with patients and professionals respectively contributed to the first draft of the D-AI, which was further improved by professionals.

Results: The D-AI now consists of 10 domains, 68 goals and 813 tasks. Goals are organized into the "Activities and Participation" domains of the ICF. The original routing was maintained; only tasks organized under important (0 [not important] to 3 [very important]) and difficult (0 [not difficult] to 4 [impossible]) goals were assessed.

Conclusion: Rehabilitation needs can be organized in the "Activities and Participation" domains of the ICF. The D-AI offers a way of systematically assessing and measuring functional limitations and disabilities, and provides detailed information about activities that are needed to perform a certain goal. Focus group discussions with Dutch patients and experts revealed additional items that will probably be relevant for other populations. Involving patients in the first step of the developing process is important to provide face and content validity. The D-AI can prioritize rehabilitation goals by multiplying importance and difficulty scores, which is helpful in formulating a rehabilitation plan.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Aged
  • Disability Evaluation*
  • Female
  • Focus Groups
  • Geriatric Assessment*
  • Humans
  • Language
  • Male
  • Netherlands
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sickness Impact Profile*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vision, Low / diagnosis*
  • Vision, Low / rehabilitation
  • Visually Impaired Persons / rehabilitation*